By David McDowall
The department of the Kurdish humans between 4 smooth state states--Iraq, Turkey, Syria and Iran--and their fight for nationwide rights were consistent topics of modern heart East historical past. The Kurdish lands were contested territory for lots of centuries. during this precise heritage of the Kurds from the nineteenth century to the current day, McDowall examines the interaction of previous and new points of the fight, the significance of neighborhood rivalries inside Kurdish society, the iconic authority of convinced varieties of management and the failure of contemporary states to reply to the problem of Kurdish nationalism. Drawing largely on fundamental assets McDowall's publication comes in handy for all who desire a higher realizing of the underlying dynamics of the Kurdish query.
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The importance of the law, the Temple and the identity of the Jewish people is also shown in events in which Jews from Asia Minor opposed Christians in Jerusalem. On one occasion the Jews in Ephesus attempted to assert and preserve their distinctive identity. We have noted that some Jews from Asia Minor went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, showing that there was contact between communities in Asia Minor and Palestine. Other Jews may have practised exorcism in Ephesus. In that city there seems to have been some anti-Jewish feeling caused at least in part by the fact that the Jews did not worship Artemis.
At times in the first three centuries CE we have evidence that Jews in Asia Minor opposed Christianity and that this sometimes led to the persecution of Christians. From the NT we can suggest that Christian preaching of a law-free Gospel to the Gentiles, and the suc cess of the Christian mission among Gentiles, were factors behind this conflict. The importance of the law, the Temple and the identity of the Jewish people is also shown by Jews from Asia Minor opposing Christians in Jerusalem. On one occasion the Jews in Ephesus attempted to assert and preserve their distinct identity.
Its importance as a centre of royal power and administration was in part due to its position on significant trade routes, most notably as the terminus of the Royal Road. Antiochus HI refounded the city in 213 BCE after it had supported Achaeus in his attempt to seize power. Around 190 BCE the Romans defeated Antiochus HI and gave Sardis to the Pergamene king. Passing to Rome in 133 BCE, Sardis became part of the province of Asia and soon after became the centre of one of the nine conventus iuridicL In the period between 90 BCE and 17 CE the city declined somewhat, but by the Augustan era peace and confidence had returned.